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Atlanta Falcons. San Francisco 49ers. Washington Football Team. Philadelphia Eagles. New Orleans Saints. Footage from high-speed sections of circuits showed the Red Bull front wing bending on the outsides subsequently creating greater downforce.
Tests were held on the Red Bull front wing and the FIA could find no way that the wing was breaking any regulation.
Since the start of the season, cars have been allowed to run with an adjustable rear wing, more commonly known as DRS drag reduction system , a system to combat the problem of turbulent air when overtaking.
On the straights of a track, drivers can deploy DRS, which opens the rear wing, reduces the drag of the car, allowing it to move faster. As soon as the driver touches the brake, the rear wing shuts again.
In free practice and qualifying, a driver may use it whenever he wishes to, but in the race, it can only be used if the driver is 1 second, or less, behind another driver at the DRS detection zone on the race track, at which point it can be activated in the activation zone until the driver brakes.
Nose boxes are hollow structures made of carbon fibers. They absorb the shock at the time of crash preventing injury to the driver. Just behind the driver's cockpit is a structure called the Air Box.
The AirBox serves two purposes. It receives the high speed moving air and supplies to the intake manifold of the engine. This high-speed air is pressurised and hence is compressed due to the Ram Effect.
This high-pressure air, when supplied to the engine, boosts its power considerably. Also, the air supplied to it is highly turbulent since it passes above the driver's helmet.
The airbox absorbs this turbulent air, preventing it from disturbing the laminar airflow along with other parts. The second advantage of the air box is its large size, which provides a large space for advertising, in turn, providing opportunities for additional ad revenue.
F1 regulations heavily limit the use of ground effect aerodynamics which are a highly efficient means of creating downforce with a small drag penalty.
The underside of the vehicle, the undertray, must be flat between the axles. A substantial amount of downforce is provided by using a rear diffuser which rises from the undertray at the rear axle to the actual rear of the bodywork.
The limitations on ground effects, limited size of the wings requiring use at high angles of attack to create sufficient downforce , and vortices created by open wheels lead to a high aerodynamic drag coefficient about 1 according to Minardi 's technical director Gabriele Tredozi ;  compare with the average modern saloon car , which has a C d value between 0.
However, this drag is more than compensated for by the ability to corner at extremely high speed. The aerodynamics are adjusted for each track; with a low drag configuration for tracks where high speed is more important like Autodromo Nazionale Monza , and a high traction configuration for tracks where cornering is more important, like the Circuit de Monaco.
With the regulations, the FIA rid F1 cars of small winglets and other parts of the car minus the front and rear wing used to manipulate the airflow of the car in order to decrease drag and increase downforce.
As it is now, the front wing is shaped specifically to push air towards all the winglets and bargeboards so that the airflow is smooth. Should these be removed, various parts of the car will cause great drag when the front wing is unable to shape the air past the body of the car.
The driver has the ability to fine-tune many elements of the race car from within the machine using the steering wheel.
The wheel can be used to change gears, apply rev. Data such as engine rpm, lap times, speed, and gear are displayed on an LCD screen.
The wheel hub will also incorporate gear change paddles and a row of LED shift lights. In the season, certain teams such as Mercedes have chosen to use larger LCDs on their wheels which allow the driver to see additional information such as fuel flow and torque delivery.
They are also more customizable owing to the possibility of using much different software. The fuel used in F1 cars is fairly similar to ordinary premium petrol , albeit with a far more tightly controlled mix.
Formula One fuel would fall under high octane premium road fuel with octane thresholds of 95 to F1 Blends are tuned for maximum performance in given weather conditions or different circuits.
During the period when teams were limited to a specific volume of fuel during a race, exotic high-density fuel blends were used which were actually more dense than water, since the energy content of a fuel depends on its mass density.
To make sure that the teams and fuel suppliers are not violating the fuel regulations, the FIA requires Elf, Shell, Mobil, Petronas, and the other fuel teams to submit a sample of the fuel they are providing for a race.
At any time, FIA inspectors can request a sample from the fueling rig to compare the "fingerprint" of what is in the car during the race with what was submitted.
The teams usually abide by this rule, but in , Mika Häkkinen was stripped of his third-place finish at Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium after the FIA determined that his fuel was not the correct formula, as well as in , both McLaren and Penske cars were forced to the rear of the Italian Grand Prix after the octane number of the mixture was found to be too high.
The season saw the re-introduction of slick tyres replacing the grooved tyres used from to Unlike the fuel, the tyres bear only a superficial resemblance to a normal road tyre.
This is the result of a drive to maximize the road-holding ability, leading to the use of very soft compounds to ensure that the tyre surface conforms to the road surface as closely as possible.
Since the start of the season, F1 had a sole tyre supplier. From to , this was Bridgestone, but saw the reintroduction of Pirelli into the sport, following the departure of Bridgestone.
Seven compounds of F1 tyre exist; 5 are dry weather compounds labeled C1 through C5 while 2 are wet compounds intermediates for damp surfaces with no standing water and full wets for surfaces with standing water.
Three of the dry weather compounds generally a harder and softer compound are brought to each race, plus both wet weather compounds.
The harder tyres are more durable but give less grip, and the softer tyres the opposite. In the Bridgestone years, a green band on the sidewall of the softer compound was painted to allow spectators to distinguish which tyre a driver is on.
Beginning in , Pirelli scrapped the tyre naming system such that the tyres will denote at each Grand Prix independently as hard, medium and soft with white, yellow and red sidewalls respectively rather than having a separate name and colour for each of the five tyres.
The change was implemented so that casual fans could better understand the tyre system. Generally, the three dry compounds brought to the track are of consecutive specifications.
Disc brakes consist of a rotor and caliper at each wheel. Carbon composite rotors introduced by the Brabham team in are used instead of steel or cast iron because of their superior frictional, thermal, and anti-warping properties, as well as significant weight savings.
The driver can control brake force distribution fore and aft to compensate for changes in track conditions or fuel load. Regulations specify this control must be mechanical, not electronic, thus it is typically operated by a lever inside the cockpit as opposed to a control on the steering wheel.
When braking from higher speeds, aerodynamic downforce enables tremendous deceleration: 4. This contrasts with 1. During a demonstration at the Silverstone circuit in Britain, an F1 McLaren-Mercedes car driven by David Coulthard gave a pair of Mercedes-Benz street cars a head start of seventy seconds, and was able to beat the cars to the finish line from a standing start, a distance of only 5.
As well as being fast in a straight line, F1 cars have outstanding cornering ability. Grand Prix cars can negotiate corners at significantly higher speeds than other racing cars because of the intense levels of grip and downforce.
Cornering speed is so high that Formula One drivers have strength training routines just for the neck muscles. The principal consideration for F1 designers is acceleration , and not simply top speed.
Three types of acceleration can be considered to assess a car's performance:. All three accelerations should be maximised.
The way these three accelerations are obtained and their values are:. However the massive power cannot be converted to motion at low speeds due to traction loss and the usual figure is 2.
The figures are for the Mercedes W07 :  . The acceleration figure is usually 1. There are also boost systems known as kinetic energy recovery systems KERS.
These devices recover the kinetic energy created by the car's braking process. They store that energy and convert it into power that can be called upon to boost acceleration.
There are principally two types of systems: electrical and mechanical flywheel. Electrical systems use a motor-generator incorporated in the car's transmission which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa.
Once the energy has been harnessed, it is stored in a battery and released at will. When extra power is required, the flywheel is connected to the car's rear wheels.
In contrast to electrical KERS, mechanical energy does not change state and is, therefore, more efficient. There is one other option available, hydraulic KERS, where braking energy is used to accumulate hydraulic pressure which is then sent to the wheels when required.
The carbon brakes in combination with tyre technology and the car's aerodynamics produce truly remarkable braking forces. In , Martin Brundle , a former Grand Prix driver, tested the Williams Toyota FW29 Formula 1 car and stated that under heavy braking he felt like his lungs were hitting the inside of his ribcage, forcing him to exhale involuntarily.
Here the aerodynamic drag actually helps, and can contribute as much as 1. There are three companies that manufacture brakes for Formula One.
This means carbon fibres strengthening a matrix of carbon, which is added to the fibres by way of matrix deposition CVI or CVD or by pyrolysis of a resin binder.
The callipers are aluminium alloy-bodied with titanium pistons. Titanium pistons save weight, and also have a low thermal conductivity, reducing the heat flow into the brake fluid.
The aerodynamic forces of a Formula 1 car can produce as much as three times the car's weight in downforce. At low speeds, the car can turn at 2.
Since the force that creates the lateral acceleration is largely friction, and friction is proportional to the normal force applied , the large downforce allows an F1 car to corner at very high speeds.
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