Review of: Wer Wars?

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This is the Great War. For much of the 19th century, the major European powers had tried to maintain a tenuous balance of power among themselves, resulting in a complex network of political and Military alliances.

French desire for revenge over the defeat of , known as revanchism , and the recovery of Alsace-Lorraine became a principal object of French policy for the next forty years see French—German enmity.

Concerned by Russia's victory in the — Russo-Turkish War and its influence in the Balkans , the League was dissolved in , with Germany and Austria-Hungary subsequently forming the Dual Alliance ; this became the Triple Alliance when Italy joined in The practical details of these alliances were limited, since their primary purpose was to ensure cooperation between the three Imperial Powers, and to isolate France.

Attempts by Britain in to resolve colonial tensions with Russia and diplomatic moves by France led to Bismarck reforming the League in The agreements did not constitute formal alliances, but by settling long-standing colonial disputes, they made British entry into any future conflict involving France or Russia a possibility.

These interlocking bilateral agreements became known as the Triple Entente. The creation of the German Reich following victory in the Franco-Prussian War led to a massive increase in Germany's economic and industrial strength.

This resulted in the Anglo-German naval arms race. This was driven by Russia's recovery from the Revolution , specifically increased investment post in railways and infrastructure in its western border regions.

Germany and Austria-Hungary relied on faster mobilisation to compensate for fewer numbers; it was concern at the closing of this gap that led to the end of the naval race, rather than a reduction in tension elsewhere.

When Germany expanded its standing army by , men in , France extended compulsory military service from two to three years; similar measures taken by the Balkan powers and Italy, which led to increased expenditure by the Ottomans and Austria-Hungary.

Absolute figures are hard to calculate, due to differences in categorising expenditure, while they often omit civilian infrastructure projects with a military use, such as railways.

In October , Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of — by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina , which it had occupied since The Balkans came to be known as the " powder keg of Europe ".

The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian state while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro , and Greece.

The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces, which Austria-Hungary had annexed from the Ottoman Empire, so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia.

Some nearby were injured by the blast, but Ferdinand's convoy carried on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them.

About an hour later, when Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital with those wounded in the assassination attempt, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where, by coincidence, Princip stood.

With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Although they were reportedly not personally close, the Emperor Franz Joseph was profoundly shocked and upset.

The reaction among the people in Austria, however, was mild, almost indifferent. On Sunday and Monday 28 and 29 June , the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened.

The Austro-Hungarian authorities encouraged the subsequent anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo , in which Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks killed two Bosnian Serbs and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings.

Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5, prominent Serbs, to 2, of whom died in prison. A further Serbs were sentenced to death.

A predominantly Bosniak special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.

Austria-Hungary correctly believed that Serbian officials especially the officers of the Black Hand had been involved in the plot to murder the Archduke, and wanted to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia.

Serbia accepted all the terms of the ultimatum except for article six, which demanded that Austrian delegates be allowed in Serbia for the purpose of participation in the investigation into the assassination.

Finally, on 28 July , a month after the assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg waited until the 31st for an appropriate response, when Germany declared Erklärung des Kriegszustandes , or "Statement on the war status".

When he refused, Germany issued an ultimatum demanding its mobilisation be stopped, and a commitment not to support Serbia. Another was sent to France, asking her not to support Russia if it were to come to the defence of Serbia.

The German government issued demands to France that it remain neutral whilst they decided which deployment plan to implement, it being extremely difficult to change the deployment once it was underway.

Germany responded by mobilising its own reserves and implementing Aufmarsch II West. The British cabinet decided on 29 July that being a signatory to the treaty about Belgium did not oblige it to oppose a German invasion of Belgium with military force.

Yet Wilhelm insisted that the German army should not march into Luxembourg until he received a telegram sent by his cousin George V , who made it clear that there had been a misunderstanding.

Eventually the Kaiser told Moltke, "Now you can do what you want. For years, the French had been aware of intelligence indicating that Germany planned to attack France through Belgium.

General Joseph Joffre , chief of staff of the French military from , inquired about the possibility of moving some French troops into Belgium to preempt such a move by Germany, but France's civilian leadership rejected this idea.

Joffre was told that France would not be the first power to violate Belgian neutrality and that any French move into Belgium could come only after the Germans had already invaded.

The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed.

Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in , but those had never been tested in exercises.

Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.

Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory.

As a result, Austria had to keep sizeable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia. The plan was to quickly knock France out of the war, then redeploy to the East and do the same to Russia.

Schlieffen deliberately kept the German left i. Consequently, as the German Army increased in size in the years leading up to the war, he changed the allocation of forces between the German right and left wings from to Ultimately, Moltke's changes meant insufficient forces to achieve decisive success and thus unrealistic goals and timings.

The initial German advance in the West was very successful: by the end of August the Allied left, which included the British Expeditionary Force BEF , was in full retreat ; French casualties in the first month exceeded ,, including 27, killed on 22 August during the Battle of the Frontiers.

In , the Russian Stavka had agreed with the French to attack Germany within 15 days of mobilisation; this was unrealistic and the two Russian armies that entered East Prussia on 17 August did so without many of their support elements.

By the end of , German troops held strong defensive positions inside France, controlled the bulk of France's domestic coalfields and had inflicted , more casualties than it lost itself.

However, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of a decisive outcome, and it had failed to achieve the primary objective of avoiding a long, two-front war.

It will go on for a long time but lost it is already. Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French, and German colonial forces in Africa.

On 10 August, German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the rest of the war.

Germany attempted to use Indian nationalism and pan-Islamism to its advantage, instigating uprisings in India , and sending a mission that urged Afghanistan to join the war on the side of Central Powers.

However, contrary to British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain.

Gandhi and others. Military tactics developed before World War I failed to keep pace with advances in technology and had become obsolete.

These advances had allowed the creation of strong defensive systems, which out-of-date military tactics could not break through for most of the war.

Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances, while artillery , vastly more lethal than in the s, coupled with machine guns , made crossing open ground extremely difficult.

In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as gas warfare and the tank. After the First Battle of the Marne 5—12 September , Allied and German forces unsuccessfully tried to outflank each other, a series of manoeuvres later known as the " Race to the Sea ".

By the end of , the opposing forces were left confronting each other along an uninterrupted line of entrenched positions from Alsace to Belgium's North Sea coast.

Both sides tried to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. Several types of gas soon became widely used by both sides, and though it never proved a decisive, battle-winning weapon, poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war.

However, their effectiveness would grow as the war progressed; the Allies built tanks in large numbers, whilst the Germans employed only a few of their own design, supplemented by captured Allied tanks.

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years. Throughout —17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, because of both the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides.

Strategically, while the Germans mounted only one major offensive, the Allies made several attempts to break through the German lines.

In February the Germans attacked French defensive positions at the Battle of Verdun , lasting until December The Germans made initial gains, before French counter-attacks returned matters to near their starting point.

Casualties were greater for the French, but the Germans bled heavily as well, with anywhere from , [99] to , [] casualties suffered between the two combatants.

Verdun became a symbol of French determination and self-sacrifice. The opening day of the offensive 1 July was the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army , suffering 57, casualties, including 19, dead.

The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army some , casualties. The French suffered another estimated , casualties and the Germans an estimated , To maintain morale, wartime censors minimised early reports of widespread influenza illness and mortality in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.

Protracted action at Verdun throughout , [] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse.

Futile attempts using frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French and led to the widespread French Army Mutinies , after the failure of the costly Nivelle Offensive of April—May The last large-scale offensive of this period was a British attack with French support at Passchendaele July—November This offensive opened with great promise for the Allies, before bogging down in the October mud.

Casualties, though disputed, were roughly equal, at some ,—, per side. The years of trench warfare on the Western front achieved no major exchanges of territory and, as a result, are often thought of as static and unchanging.

However, throughout this period, British, French, and German tactics constantly evolved to meet new battlefield challenges. At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping.

The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. Before the beginning of the war, it was widely understood that Britain held the position of strongest, most influential navy in the world.

Instead, this book made it to Germany and inspired its readers to try to over-power the British Royal Navy. Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain began a naval blockade of Germany.

The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.

It was the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war, and one of the largest in history. The engagement was a stand off, as the Germans were outmanoeuvred by the larger British fleet, but managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received.

Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.

German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain. After the sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in , Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the " cruiser rules ", which demanded warning and movement of crews to "a place of safety" a standard that lifeboats did not meet.

The U-boat threat lessened in , when merchant ships began travelling in convoys , escorted by destroyers.

This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the hydrophone and depth charges were introduced, accompanying destroyers could attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success.

Convoys slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was an extensive program of building new freighters.

Troopships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys. Faced with Russia in the east, Austria-Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia.

After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counter-attack in the Battle of Kolubara succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of For the first ten months of , Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy.

German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join the attack on Serbia.

Montenegro allied itself with Serbia. Bulgaria declared war on Serbia on 12 October and joined in the attack by the Austro-Hungarian army under Mackensen's army of , that was already underway.

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month, as the Central Powers, now including Bulgaria, sent in , troops total.

The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into northern Albania. The Serbs suffered defeat in the Battle of Kosovo.

Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat towards the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6—7 January , but ultimately the Austrians also conquered Montenegro.

The surviving Serbian soldiers were evacuated by ship to Greece. In late , a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece to offer assistance and to pressure its government to declare war against the Central Powers.

After intense negotiations and an armed confrontation in Athens between Allied and royalist forces an incident known as Noemvriana , the King of Greece resigned and his second son Alexander took his place; Greece officially joined the war on the side of the Allies in June The Macedonian front was initially mostly static.

French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November following the costly Monastir Offensive , which brought stabilisation of the front.

Serbian and French troops finally made a breakthrough in September in the Vardar Offensive , after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had been withdrawn.

The Bulgarians were defeated at the Battle of Dobro Pole , and by 25 September British and French troops had crossed the border into Bulgaria proper as the Bulgarian army collapsed.

Bulgaria capitulated four days later, on 29 September The disappearance of the Macedonian front meant that the road to Budapest and Vienna was now opened to Allied forces.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff concluded that the strategic and operational balance had now shifted decidedly against the Central Powers and, a day after the Bulgarian collapse, insisted on an immediate peace settlement.

As the conflict progressed, the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the European powers' preoccupation with the war and conducted large-scale ethnic cleansing of the indigenous Armenian , Greek , and Assyrian Christian populations, known as the Armenian Genocide , Greek Genocide , and Assyrian Genocide.

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli and Mesopotamian campaigns In Mesopotamia , by contrast, after the defeat of the British defenders in the Siege of Kut by the Ottomans —16 , British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March The British were aided in Mesopotamia by local Arab and Assyrian tribesmen, while the Ottomans employed local Kurdish and Turcoman tribes.

Russian armies generally had success in the Caucasus campaign. Enver Pasha , supreme commander of the Ottoman armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and areas that had been lost to Russia previously.

He was, however, a poor commander. The Ottomans and Germans were aided by Kurdish and Azeri forces, together with a large number of major Iranian tribes, such as the Qashqai , Tangistanis , Luristanis , and Khamseh , while the Russians and British had the support of Armenian and Assyrian forces.

The Persian Campaign was to last until and end in failure for the Ottomans and their allies. However, the Russian withdrawal from the war in led to Armenian and Assyrian forces, who had hitherto inflicted a series of defeats upon the forces of the Ottomans and their allies, being cut off from supply lines, outnumbered, outgunned and isolated, forcing them to fight and flee towards British lines in northern Mesopotamia.

General Yudenich , the Russian commander from to , drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.

Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in However, in March February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar , the Tsar abdicated in the course of the February Revolution , and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart.

Fakhri Pasha , the Ottoman commander of Medina , resisted for more than two and half years during the Siege of Medina before surrendering in January The Senussi tribe, along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops.

British and Dominion forces launched the next phase of the campaign with the Battle of Albert on 21 August. From German accounts, "Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines.

This ceded without a fight the salient seized the previous April. The German High Command realised that the war was lost and made attempts to reach a satisfactory end.

On 14 September Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil, and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium.

Both peace offers were rejected. In September the Allies advanced to the Hindenburg Line in the north and centre.

The Germans had now retreated to positions along or behind the Hindenburg Line. That same day, Supreme Army Command informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.

The following week, co-operating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge , forcing the Germans off the commanding heights, and closing towards the Belgian frontier.

When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September, Ludendorff, having been under great stress for months, suffered something similar to a breakdown.

It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food.

Its reserves had been used up, even as US troops kept arriving at the rate of 10, per day. News of Germany's impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces.

The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the "valour" of the German Navy.

In northern Germany, the German Revolution of — began at the end of October Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war they believed to be as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

With the military faltering and with widespread loss of confidence in the Kaiser leading to his abdication and fleeing of the country, Germany moved towards surrender.

Negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the hope that he would offer better terms than the British and French. Wilson demanded a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary control over the German military.

The Kaiser, kings and other hereditary rulers all were removed from power and Wilhelm fled to exile in the Netherlands. The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly.

Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice, the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September On 24 October, the Italians began a push that rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto.

This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force.

The offensive also triggered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October, declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague, and Zagreb.

On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice, but the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine, and Trieste.

The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian commander and accepted. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy.

In the following days the Italian Army occupied Innsbruck and all Tyrol with over 20, soldiers. During the six hours between the signing of the armistice and its taking effect, opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions, but fighting continued along many areas of the front, as commanders wanted to capture territory before the war ended.

The occupation of the Rhineland took place following the Armistice. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces.

In November , the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany. These factors enabled Hindenburg and other senior German leaders to spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated.

This resulted in the stab-in-the-back legend , [] [] which attributed Germany's defeat not to its inability to continue fighting even though up to a million soldiers were suffering from the flu pandemic and unfit to fight , but to the public's failure to respond to its "patriotic calling" and the supposed intentional sabotage of the war effort, particularly by Jews, Socialists, and Bolsheviks.

The Allies had much more potential wealth they could spend on the war. In the aftermath of the war, four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian.

Numerous nations regained their former independence, and new ones were created. Four dynasties, together with their ancillary aristocracies, fell as a result of the war: the Romanovs , the Hohenzollerns , the Habsburgs , and the Ottomans.

Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France, with 1. Germany and Russia were similarly affected. A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June However, the negotiation of the treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife, and a final peace treaty between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey was not signed until 24 July , at Lausanne.

Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles Treaty was signed in , which was when many of the troops serving abroad finally returned home; by contrast, most commemorations of the war's end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November Under its terms, the Allied forces left Constantinople on 23 August After the war, the Paris Peace Conference imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers officially ending the war.

The Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany and, building on Wilson's 14th point , brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June The Central Powers had to acknowledge responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by" their aggression.

In the Treaty of Versailles, this statement was Article This article became known as the War Guilt clause as the majority of Germans felt humiliated and resentful.

German historian Hagen Schulze said the Treaty placed Germany "under legal sanctions, deprived of military power, economically ruined, and politically humiliated.

Active denial of war guilt in Germany and German resentment at both reparations and continued Allied occupation of the Rhineland made widespread revision of the meaning and memory of the war problematic.

The legend of the " stab in the back " and the wish to revise the "Versailles diktat", and the belief in an international threat aimed at the elimination of the German nation persisted at the heart of German politics.

Even a man of peace such as [ Gustav ] Stresemann publicly rejected German guilt. As for the Nazis, they waved the banners of domestic treason and international conspiracy in an attempt to galvanise the German nation into a spirit of revenge.

Like a Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany sought to redirect the memory of the war to the benefit of its own policies. Meanwhile, new nations liberated from German rule viewed the treaty as recognition of wrongs committed against small nations by much larger aggressive neighbours.

However, owing to economic difficulties and Germany being the only defeated power with an intact economy, the burden fell largely on Germany.

Austria-Hungary was partitioned into several successor states, including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia , largely but not entirely along ethnic lines.

Transylvania was shifted from Hungary to Greater Romania. As a result of the Treaty of Trianon , 3. Between and , , Hungarians fled former Hungarian territories attached to Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.

The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia , Finland , Latvia , Lithuania , and Poland were carved from it.

Romania took control of Bessarabia in April The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, with much of its Levant territory awarded to various Allied powers as protectorates.

The Turkish core in Anatolia was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. This treaty was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish National Movement , leading to the victorious Turkish War of Independence and the much less stringent Treaty of Lausanne.

Though by most countries had made peace treaties, Andorra was an exception. Andorra declared war on Germany in August At that time, it had an army of part-time military men, commanded by two officials.

Andorra had a very small population, so it never sent soldiers to the battlefield. Andorra was therefore not allowed to attend the Treaty of Versailles.

The country finally concluded a peace treaty with Germany in After years, Poland re-emerged as an independent country. The Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty, as a "minor Entente nation" and the country with the most casualties per capita, [] [] [] became the backbone of a new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , later renamed Yugoslavia.

Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism.

It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought, and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown.

After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps, Canadians began to refer to their country as a nation "forged from fire".

Canada entered the war as a Dominion of the British Empire and remained so, although it emerged with a greater measure of independence.

Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann and fear that American Jews would encourage the United States to support Germany culminated in the British government's Balfour Declaration of , endorsing creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

These continue to be problematic in the 21st-century struggles for national identity. The prestige of Germany and German things in Latin America remained high after the war but did not recover to its pre-war levels.

Germany lost The Australian prime minister, Billy Hughes , wrote to the British prime minister, Lloyd George , "You have assured us that you cannot get better terms.

I much regret it, and hope even now that some way may be found of securing agreement for demanding reparation commensurate with the tremendous sacrifices made by the British Empire and her Allies.

Diseases flourished in the chaotic wartime conditions. In alone, louse-borne epidemic typhus killed , in Serbia. The social disruption and widespread violence of the Russian Revolution of and the ensuing Russian Civil War sparked more than 2, pogroms in the former Russian Empire, mostly in Ukraine.

In the aftermath of World War I, Greece fought against Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal , a war that eventually resulted in a massive population exchange between the two countries under the Treaty of Lausanne.

World War I began as a clash of 20th-century technology and 19th-century tactics , with the inevitably large ensuing casualties.

By the end of , however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication , [] armoured cars , tanks , [] and aircraft.

Infantry formations were reorganised, so that man companies were no longer the main unit of manoeuvre; instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favoured.

Artillery also underwent a revolution. In , cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets.

By , indirect fire with guns as well as mortars and even machine guns was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone.

Germany was far ahead of the Allies in using heavy indirect fire. Much of the combat involved trench warfare, in which hundreds often died for each metre gained.

The Germans employed the Haber process of nitrogen fixation to provide their forces with a constant supply of gunpowder despite the British naval blockade.

The large number of head wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet , worn by British Imperial and US troops, and in by the distinctive German Stahlhelm , a design, with improvements, still in use today.

Quick, boys! Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict.

Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene. Relatively few war casualties were caused by gas, [] as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks.

The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing as opposed to tactical bombing were both outlawed by the Hague Conventions of and , and both proved to be of limited effectiveness, [] though they captured the public imagination.

The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns, weighing dozens of tons apiece. The British and the French sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare.

The British first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September Mechanical reliability was an issue, but the experiment proved its worth.

Meanwhile, the French introduced the first tanks with a rotating turret, the Renault FT , which became a decisive tool of the victory.

The conflict also saw the introduction of light automatic weapons and submachine guns , such as the Lewis Gun , the Browning Automatic Rifle , and the Bergmann MP Another new weapon, the flamethrower , was first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces.

Although not of high tactical value, the flamethrower was a powerful, demoralising weapon that caused terror on the battlefield.

Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed.

On the Western Front neither side made impressive gains in the first three years of the war with attacks at Verdun, the Somme, Passchendaele, and Cambrai—the exception was Nivelle's Offensive in which the German defence gave ground while mauling the attackers so badly that there were mutinies in the French Army.

In the Germans smashed through the defence lines in three great attacks: Michael, on the Lys, and on the Aisne, which displayed the power of their new tactics.

The Allies struck back at Soissons , which showed the Germans that they must return to the defensive, and at Amiens; tanks played a prominent role in both these assaults, as they had the year before at Cambrai.

The areas in the East were larger. In a series of attacks along with the Bulgarians they occupied Serbia, Albania, Montenegro and most of Romania.

The Allies successes came later in Palestine , the beginning of the end for the Ottomans, in Macedonia, which drove the Bulgarians out of the war, and at Vittorio Veneto, the final blow for the Austro-Hungarians.

Germany deployed U-boats submarines after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, the Kaiserliche Marine employed them to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies.

The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges , hydrophones passive sonar , , blimps, hunter-killer submarines HMS R-1 , , forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons , and dipping hydrophones the latter two both abandoned in Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year.

By , their military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed.

Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. Manned observation balloons , floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery.

Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes , [] so that if there was an enemy air attack the crew could parachute to safety.

At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft with their marginal power output , and smaller versions were not developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by the British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.

Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets for enemy aircraft. To defend them against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were tried.

Thus, the reconnaissance value of blimps and balloons contributed to the development of air-to-air combat between all types of aircraft, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected.

The Germans conducted air raids on England during and with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines, and indeed the resulting panic led to the diversion of several squadrons of fighters from France.

All German survivors were summarily executed by Baralong ' s crew on the orders of Lieutenant Godfrey Herbert , the captain of the ship.

The shooting was reported to the media by American citizens who were on board the Nicosia , a British freighter loaded with war supplies, which was stopped by U just minutes before the incident.

He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring in the words of Donald Christopher Smith, a Bermudian cadet who was present ,.

In our ignorance I, and many of us, felt almost ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments, but during the next four years, those of us who survived the holocaust—probably not more than one-quarter of us—learned how right the General's prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. In the US, the Espionage Act of and Sedition Act of made it a federal crime to oppose military recruitment or make any statements deemed "disloyal".

Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors, [] and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic.

A number of nationalists opposed intervention, particularly within states that the nationalists were hostile to.

Although the vast majority of Irish people consented to participate in the war in and , a minority of advanced Irish nationalists staunchly opposed taking part.

Irish nationalists and Marxists attempted to pursue Irish independence, culminating in the Easter Rising of , with Germany sending 20, rifles to Ireland to stir unrest in Britain.

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors —some socialist, some religious—who refused to fight. In Britain, 16, people asked for conscientious objector status.

Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked "No conscientious objectors need apply". The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of , when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.

In , a series of French Army Mutinies led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned. On 1—4 May , about , workers and soldiers of Petrograd , and after them, the workers and soldiers of other Russian cities, led by the Bolsheviks, demonstrated under banners reading "Down with the war!

Almost 50 people including three Italian soldiers were killed and over people arrested. In September , Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.

The German Revolution of — led to the abdication of the Kaiser and German surrender. Conscription was common in most European countries.

However, it was controversial in English-speaking countries. It was especially unpopular among minority ethnic groups—especially the Irish Catholics in Ireland and Australia, [] and the French Catholics in Canada.

In Canada the issue produced a major political crisis that permanently alienated the Francophones. It opened a political gap between French Canadians , who believed their true loyalty was to Canada and not to the British Empire, and members of the Anglophone majority, who saw the war as a duty to their British heritage.

Australia had a form of conscription at the outbreak of the war, as compulsory military training had been introduced in However, the Defence Act provided that unexempted males could be called upon only for home defence during times of war, not overseas service.

Prime Minister Billy Hughes wished to amend the legislation to require conscripts to serve overseas, and held two non-binding referendums — one in and one in — in order to secure public support.

Hughes and his supporters were expelled from the party, forming the National Labor Party and then the Nationalist Party.

Despite the referendum results, the Nationalists won a landslide victory at the federal election. In Britain, conscription resulted in the calling up of nearly every physically fit man in Britain—six of ten million eligible.

Of these, about , lost their lives. Most deaths were those of young unmarried men; however, , wives lost husbands and , children lost fathers.

The act specified that single men aged 18 to 40 years old were liable to be called up for military service unless they were widowed with children or ministers of a religion.

There was a system of Military Service Tribunals to adjudicate upon claims for exemption upon the grounds of performing civilian work of national importance, domestic hardship, health, and conscientious objection.

The law went through several changes before the war ended. Married men were exempt in the original Act, although this was changed in June The age limit was also eventually raised to 51 years old.

Recognition of work of national importance also diminished, and in the last year of the war there was some support for the conscription of clergy.

Due to the political situation in Ireland, conscription was never applied there; only in England , Scotland and Wales. In the United States, conscription began in and was generally well received, with a few pockets of opposition in isolated rural areas.

The draft was universal and included blacks on the same terms as whites, although they served in different units. Forms of resistance ranged from peaceful protest to violent demonstrations and from humble letter-writing campaigns asking for mercy to radical newspapers demanding reform.

The most common tactics were dodging and desertion, and many communities sheltered and defended their draft dodgers as political heroes. Many socialists were jailed for "obstructing the recruitment or enlistment service".

The most famous was Eugene Debs, head of the Socialist Party of America, who ran for president in from his prison cell.

In a number of radicals and anarchists challenged the new draft law in federal court, arguing that it was a direct violation of the Thirteenth Amendment's prohibition against slavery and involuntary servitude.

Like all the armies of mainland Europe, Austria-Hungary relied on conscription to fill its ranks. Officer recruitment, however, was voluntary.

This was much resented. The army has been described as being "run on colonial lines" and the Slav soldiers as "disaffected".

Thus conscription contributed greatly to Austria's disastrous performance on the battlefield. The non-military diplomatic and propaganda interactions among the nations were designed to build support for the cause, or to undermine support for the enemy.

For the most part, wartime diplomacy focused on five issues: propaganda campaigns ; defining and redefining the war goals, which became harsher as the war went on; luring neutral nations Italy, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, Romania into the coalition by offering slices of enemy territory; and encouragement by the Allies of nationalistic minority movements inside the Central Powers, especially among Czechs, Poles, and Arabs.

In addition, there were multiple peace proposals coming from neutrals, or one side or the other; none of them progressed very far.

The War was an unprecedented triumph for natural science. This triumph paved the way to other triumphs: improvements in transport, in sanitation, in surgery, medicine, and psychiatry, in commerce and industry, and, above all, in preparations for the next war.

The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war, and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities, and is still underway, more than a century later.

Historian Heather Jones argues that the historiography has been reinvigorated by the cultural turn in recent years. Scholars have raised entirely new questions regarding military occupation, radicalisation of politics, race, and the male body.

Furthermore, new research has revised our understanding of five major topics that historians have long debated: Why the war began, why the Allies won, whether generals were responsible for high casualty rates, how the soldiers endured the horrors of trench warfare, and to what extent the civilian homefront accepted and endorsed the war effort.

Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. Many of these graveyards also have central monuments to the missing or unidentified dead, such as the Menin Gate memorial and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme.

The UK Government has budgeted substantial resources to the commemoration of the war during the period to The lead body is the Imperial War Museum.

World War I had a lasting impact on social memory. It was seen by many in Britain as signalling the end of an era of stability stretching back to the Victorian period , and across Europe many regarded it as a watershed.

A generation of innocent young men, their heads full of high abstractions like Honour, Glory and England, went off to war to make the world safe for democracy.

They were slaughtered in stupid battles planned by stupid generals. Those who survived were shocked, disillusioned and embittered by their war experiences, and saw that their real enemies were not the Germans, but the old men at home who had lied to them.

They rejected the values of the society that had sent them to war, and in doing so separated their own generation from the past and from their cultural inheritance.

This has become the most common perception of World War I, perpetuated by the art, cinema, poems, and stories published subsequently.

These beliefs did not become widely shared because they offered the only accurate interpretation of wartime events. In every respect, the war was much more complicated than they suggest.

It has been pointed out that, although the losses were devastating, their greatest impact was socially and geographically limited.

The many emotions other than horror experienced by soldiers in and out of the front line, including comradeship, boredom, and even enjoyment, have been recognised.

The war is not now seen as a 'fight about nothing', but as a war of ideals, a struggle between aggressive militarism and more or less liberal democracy.

It has been acknowledged that British generals were often capable men facing difficult challenges, and that it was under their command that the British army played a major part in the defeat of the Germans in a great forgotten victory.

Though these views have been discounted as "myths", [] [] they are common. They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences, reflecting in the s perceptions of the war as "aimless" following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the s.

The majority of additions to the contrary are often rejected. The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.

Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception.

Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell , and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.

The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes.

This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common, and the German populace came to see themselves as victims.

The widespread acceptance of the "stab-in-the-back" theory delegitimised the Weimar government and destabilised the system, opening it to extremes of right and left.

The same occurred in Austria which counterfactually considered himself not being responsible for the outbreak of the war and claimed not to have suffered a military defeat.

Communist and fascist movements around Europe drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a new level of popularity.

These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war. Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity by using German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles.

The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany and its allies, and also the Armenian Genocide of One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire.

To harness all the power of their societies, governments created new ministries and powers. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort ; many have lasted to the present.

Similarly, the war strained the abilities of some formerly large and bureaucratised governments, such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany.

In Austria, for example, most pigs were slaughtered, so at war's end there was no meat. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily from Wall Street.

President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late , but allowed a great increase in US government lending to the Allies.

After , the US demanded repayment of these loans. The repayments were, in part, funded by German reparations that, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany.

This circular system collapsed in and some loans were never repaid. Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men.

With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers.

At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost labourers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women. World War I further compounded the gender imbalance, adding to the phenomenon of surplus women.

The deaths of nearly one million men during the war in Britain increased the gender gap by almost a million: from , to 1,, The number of unmarried women seeking economic means grew dramatically.

In addition, demobilisation and economic decline following the war caused high unemployment. The war increased female employment; however, the return of demobilised men displaced many from the workforce, as did the closure of many of the wartime factories.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early , limited to meat, sugar, and fats butter and margarine , but not bread.

The new system worked smoothly. From to , trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million.

Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply from traditional sources had become difficult. Geologists such as Albert Ernest Kitson were called on to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies.

Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese , used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast. Article of the Treaty of Versailles the so-called "war guilt" clause stated Germany accepted responsibility for "all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

However neither of them interpreted it as an admission of war guilt. However, "Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay" this sum.

The total sum was divided into three categories, with the third being "deliberately designed to be chimerical" and its "primary function was to mislead public opinion This figure could be paid in cash or in kind coal, timber, chemical dyes, etc.

In addition, some of the territory lost—via the treaty of Versailles—was credited towards the reparation figure as were other acts such as helping to restore the Library of Louvain.

David Andelman notes "refusing to pay doesn't make an agreement null and void. The bonds, the agreement, still exist. The war contributed to the evolution of the wristwatch from women's jewellery to a practical everyday item, replacing the pocketwatch , which requires a free hand to operate.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. III biplane fighters near Douai , France, Peace treaties. Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies and territories, Partitioning the former Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire , transfer of territories to other countries.

British Empire. Theatres of World War I. Main article: Causes of World War I. Main article: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Further information: Diplomatic history of World War I. Main article: African theatre of World War I. Main article: Naval warfare of World War I.

See also: Albania during World War I. Main article: Romania during World War I. Main article: Russian Revolution.

Main article: Czechoslovak Legion. Main article: Sinai and Palestine Campaign. Main article: American entry into World War I. Main article: Spring Offensive.

Main article: Armistice of 11 November Related games. Necronomicon Flash. Monster Master Flash. Anacroz Tactics Flash. Dawn of Magic Duel Flash.

Baku the Dream Eater Flash. August 24, Retrieved August 27, NBC News. July 3, Retrieved February 18, George W. Bush gambled on surging thousands more troops to the embattled country.

It paid off. Al-Qaeda in Iraq is now a diminished force without territory. Tucker December 14, Army Times.

Retrieved January 20, National Review Online. Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved August 2, Department of State.

February 5, Retrieved November 26, Retrieved May 16, UN News. April 18, Retrieved April 18, The Journal. December 15, Retrieved January 14, Bani Walid.

No, Thanks. I just want to play games right now. Login to Earn XP. Big Screen. Exit Big Screen. World War I was one of the great watersheds of 20th-century geopolitical history.

It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties in Germany , Russia , Austria-Hungary, and Turkey , resulted in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and, in its destabilization of European society, laid the groundwork for World War II.

This assurance was confirmed in the week following the assassination, before William, on July 6, set off upon his annual cruise to the North Cape , off Norway.

The Austrians decided to present an unacceptable ultimatum to Serbia and then to declare war, relying on Germany to deter Russia from intervention.

When the delivery was announced, on July 24, Russia declared that Austria-Hungary must not be allowed to crush Serbia. Though Serbia offered to submit the issue to international arbitration, Austria-Hungary promptly severed diplomatic relations and ordered partial mobilization.

Home from his cruise on July 27, William learned on July 28 how Serbia had replied to the ultimatum.

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Wer Wars? Beat levels to unlock new monkey skins. The London Gazette. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Further information: World War I in popular culture. Mali War —present. Yet Wilhelm insisted that the German army should not march Beta At Home Luxembourg until he received a telegram sent by his cousin George Vwho made it clear that there had been a misunderstanding. Their officers lacked Klondike Spieletipps means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. Canelo Jacobs the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. Learning Horoskop Org Steinbock the German response, the Allied governments were free to Tipico Chemnitz clear demands in their response of 14 January. New York: Basic Books. A number of nationalists opposed intervention, particularly within Automaten Knacken that the nationalists were hostile to. 1/27/ · Select your cards carefully as you play them against the opponent%(33). This is a list of wars involving the United States. USA victory USA defeat Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive) Ongoing conflict. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc.), and global.
Wer Wars?
Wer Wars?

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